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A correlation between the virulence and the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to silicon nitride: an atomic force microscopy study

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2009;73(2):237–43.

Park BJ, Haines T, Abu-Lail NI.

Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular Gram-positive bacterium that is widely distributed in the environment. Despite being pathoge… Read More

Anti-infective and Osteointegration Properties of Silicon Nitride, Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone, and Titanium Implants

Webster TJ, Patel AA, Rahaman MN, Sonny Bal B.

Abstract: Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is an industrial ceramic used in spinal fusion and maxillofacial reconstruction. Maximizing bone formation and minimiz… Read More

Decreased Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Function Associated with Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Titanium and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

ePoster presentation at the 27th Annual North American Spine Society Meeting, Dallas, TX, October 24 – 26, 2012.

Deborah Gorth, Sabrina Puckett, Batur Ercan, Thomas J. Webster, PhD, Alpesh A. Patel, MD and R. Lakshminarayanan, PhD.

Results: Crystal violet staining demonstrated significantly less biofilm production and lower bacterial counts on Si3N4 samples compared to PEEK (p < 0.01) … Read More

Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared to PEEK or titanium

Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:4829-40. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S35190. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

Gorth DJ, Puckett S, Ercan B, Webster TJ, Rahaman M, Bal BS.

Abstract: A significant need exists for orthopedic implants that can intrinsically resist bacterial colonization. In this study, three biomaterials that are… Read More

Enhanced proliferation and osteocalcin production by human osteoblast-like MG63 cells on silicon nitride ceramic discs

Acta Biomater. 2012 Dec;8(12):4447-54. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.07.038. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Webster TJ, Patel AA, Rahaman MN, Sonny Bal B.

Abstract: The biocompatibility of silicon nitride (Si3N4) was assessed in an in vitro model using the human osteoblast-like MG-63 cell line. Cells were prop… Read More

Increased Bone Attachment to Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials Used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and Titanium (Ti) Materials – An In vivo Study

E-Poster at the 2012 Annual CNS Meeting, Chicago, IL, October 6 – 10, 2012.

Thomas J. Webster, PhD, Grant A. Skidmore M.D., Ramaswamy Lakshminarayanan.

Conclusions: The present in vivo study was done to examine the propensity for infection, the osteointegration behavior for different commercially available … Read More

In Vivo Bone Formation and Bacterial Infection Between Silicon Nitride Ceramic, Titanium and PEEK

Presented at the 25th Annual Congress of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty, Sydney, Australia, October 3 - 6, 2012.

Bryan J. McEntire, B. Sonny Bal, M.D., MBA, JD, Thomas J. Webster, PhD and Alan Lakshminarayanan, PhD.

Results: Si3N4 bioceramic implants demonstrated superior new bone formation and resistance to bacterial infection compared with Ti and PEEK. Three months af… Read More

Infection risk for primary and revision instrumented lumbar spine fusion in the Medicare population

J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Oct;17(4):342-7. doi: 10.3171/2012.7.SPINE12203. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

Kurtz SM1, Lau E, Ong KL, Carreon L, Watson H, Albert T, Glassman S.

Abstract: OBJECT: This retrospective analysis of Medicare administrative data was performed to evaluate the risk of infection following instrumented lumbar… Read More

Infections in Spinal Instrumentation

Received: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published online: 5 January 2012

Springer-Verlag 2012

Antoine Gerometta, Juan Carlos Rodriguez Olaverri, Fabian Bitan

Surgical-site infection (SSI ) in the spine is a serious postoperative complication. Factors such as posterior surgical approach, arthrodesis, use of spinal… Read More

Reduced Bacteria Colonization and Increased Bone Formation on Si3N4 Spinal Implants: An Evaluation of Bacterial Colonization on Existing Implant Materials

Presented in part as a poster at the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, October 1-6, 2011, Washington, D.C.

Khalid A. Sethi MD, Thomas J. Webster PhD, Deborah Gorth, Christine Ann Snyder PA-C, N. Mahmood, S. Puckett, B. Ercan, D. Bohrer.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time decreased bacteria functions on Si3N4 compared to titanium and PEEK, and provided the first understa… Read More

Research Shows Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Exhibits Antibacterial Properties, Superior Bone Growth and More Effective Bone Attachment Compared to Other Biomaterials, and May Lead to Faster Fusion

Medco Forum. 2012;19(48):1–2.

Skidmore G.

Introduction: Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology, with reported infection rates ranging from 0.7% to 11.9%, d… Read More

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

McEntire BJ

Abstract: The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… Read More

Specific and nonspecific interaction forces between Escherichia coli and silicon nitride, determined by poisson statistical analysis

Langmuir. 2006;22(17):7296–301.

Abu-Lail NI, Camesano TA.

Abstract: The nature of the physical interactions between Escherichia coli JM109 and a model surface (silicon nitride) was investigated in water via atomic … Read More

The diagnosis and management of infection following instrumented spinal fusion

Eur Spine J. 2008 Mar;17(3):445-50. Epub 2007 Dec 13.

Collins I, Wilson-MacDonald J, Chami G, Burgoyne W, Vineyakam P, Berendt T, Fairbank J.

Abstract: A 10-year retrospective audit. (1) The incidence of infection; (2) causative organisms; (3) whether eradication of infection is achievable with sp… Read More

Towards establishing broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants: silicon leads the way

Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 1281-1293, 2013 doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers329

Jonas Van Brockhaven, David De Vleesschauwer, and Monica Hofte

Plants are constantly threatened by a wide array of microbial pathogens. Pathogen invasion can lead to vast yield losses and the demand for sustainable plan… Read More

Anti-infective and Osteointegration Properties of Silicon Nitride, Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone, and Titanium Implants

Acta Biomater. 2012 Dec;8(12):4447-54. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.07.038. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Webster TJ, Patel AA, Rahaman MN, Sonny Bal B.

Abstract: Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is an industrial ceramic used in spinal fusion and maxillofacial reconstruction. Maximizing bone formation and minimiz… Read More

Biocompatibility features of silicon nitride ceramics and possible application for osteosynthesis systems

6th Interdisciplinary Essen-Symposium of the Working Group On “Biomaterials and Tissue Compatibility” October 8th – 10th, 2003.

A. Neumann, C. Ragoß, H.R. Maier, K. Jahnke.

Conclusions: Si3N4 ceramics show a good biocompatibility outcome both in vitro and in vivo. Our investigations suggest that Si3N4 presumably yields even bet… Read More

Biocompatibility of Silicon Nitride Ceramic In Vitro. A Comparative Fluorescence-microscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

Laryngorhinootologie. 2004 Dec;83(12):845-51.

Neumann A, Jahnke K, Maier HR, Ragoss C.

Abstract: With regard to its favorable physical properties, silicon nitride ceramic is considered as biomaterial for human medical application. Minor contro… Read More

Bone growth around silicon nitride implants - An evaluation by scanning electron microscopy

Materials Characterization 5 9(2008) 1339 – 1341.

C.C. Guedes e Silva, B. König Jr., M.J. Carbonari, M. Yoshimoto, S. Allegrini Jr., J.C. Bressiani.

Abstract: Silicon nitride has demonstrated to be a potential candidate for clinical applications because it is a non-cytotoxic material and has satisfactory… Read More

Bone Ingrowth into Porous Silicon Nitride

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Mar 15;92(4):1598-605. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32498.

Anderson MC, Olsen R.

Abstract: Achieving solid skeletal attachment is a requirement for the clinical success of orthopedic implants. Porous or roughened surfaces and coatings ha… Read More

Differentiation of the human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and enhancement of cell attachment by fibronectin

J Oral Sci. 2004 Dec;46(4):207-13.

Ogura N, Kawada M, Chang WJ, Zhang Q, Lee SY, Kondoh T, Abiko Y.

Abstract: The ability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to differentiate into osteoblasts was examined through the use of osteogenic induction medium (… Read More

Fundamentals for Achieving the Consistent Skeletal Attachment of Implants

University of Utah Department of Orthopaedics

Roy D. Bloebaum, Ph.D.

Histological and microradiographic appearances of Silicon Nitride and Aluminum Oxide in a rabbit femur implantation model

Presented in part as a poster at the AAO-HNSF Annual Meeting, Sept. 21-24, 2003, Orlando, Florida.

A. Neumann, M. Kramps, Chr. Ragoß, H.R. Maier, K. Jahnke.

Conclusions: Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic known for its high performance characterized by fracture toughness, high wear resistance and low coefficie… Read More

Increased Bone Attachment to Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials Used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and Titanium (Ti) Materials – An In vivo Study

E-Poster at the 2012 Annual CNS Meeting, Chicago, IL, October 6 – 10, 2012.

Thomas J. Webster, PhD, Grant A. Skidmore M.D., Ramaswamy Lakshminarayanan.

Conclusions: The present in vivo study was done to examine the propensity for infection, the osteointegration behavior for different commercially available … Read More

In Vivo Bone Formation and Bacterial Infection Between Silicon Nitride Ceramic, Titanium and PEEK

Presented at the 25th Annual Congress of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty, Sydney, Australia, October 3 - 6, 2012.

Bryan J. McEntire, B. Sonny Bal, M.D., MBA, JD, Thomas J. Webster, PhD and Alan Lakshminarayanan, PhD.

Results: Si3N4 bioceramic implants demonstrated superior new bone formation and resistance to bacterial infection compared with Ti and PEEK. Three months af… Read More

Mechincal Properties and Osseointegration of a Load Bearing Bioactive Bone Graft

49th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society Paper #0183

R. Lakshminarayanan, A. C. Khandkar, W, Bireley and **M.S. Rao

Successful repair of bone defects remains a major concern to reconstructive surgeons, especially in the elderly patient population in whom the osteogenic … Read More

Multi-level Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride Implants

David M. Jones, M.D., Piedmont Neurosurgery

This case study demonstrates adding levels to a previously fused segment, presents excellent outcomes with the Valeo OL silicon nitride interbody device. Ra… Read More

Multi-level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride & Allograft Bone in a Single Patient

David M. Jones, MD

This study demonstrates excellent clinical and fusion outcomes using silicon nitride and highlights the advantages of silicon nitride over allograft and aut… Read More

Porous Silicon Nitride Ceramics Designed for Bone Substitute Applications

Ceram Int. 2013;39(7):8355–8362.

Bodišová K, Kašiarová M, Domanická M, et al.

Abstract: Porous silicon nitride ceramics having properties similar to the human trabecular bone have been sintered and characterized in order to develop a … Read More

Research Shows Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Exhibits Antibacterial Properties, Superior Bone Growth and More Effective Bone Attachment Compared to Other Biomaterials, and May Lead to Faster Fusion

Medco Forum. 2012;19(48):1–2.

Skidmore G.

Introduction: Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology, with reported infection rates ranging from 0.7% to 11.9%, d… Read More

Results of 15-Year Clinical Study of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Intervertebral Spacers

Proceedings of the 7th World Biomaterials Congress, May 17-21, 2004, Sydney, Australia.

Sorrell, CC, Hardcastle, PH, Druitt, RK, Howlett, CR, and McCartney, ER.

Findings: Thirty patients with long-term spinal degeneration problems underwent anterior interbody fusion of the lower spine using reaction bonded silicon n… Read More

Si3N4-bioglass composites stimulate the proliferation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells and support the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow cells

Biomaterials. 2002 Dec;23(24):4897-906.

Amaral M, Costa MA, Lopes MA, Silva RF, Santos JD, Fernandes MH.

Abstract: The in vitro osteocompatibility of a novel Si3N4-bioglass composite (70-30% weight proportion) with improved mechanical properties (fracture t… Read More

Silicates and Bone Fusion

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Walid Waked, MD and Jonathan Grauer, MD

Silicon and Bone Health

J Nutr Health Aging. 2007 ; 11(2): 99–110.

R. Jugdaohsingh

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

McEntire BJ.

Abstract: The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… Read More

SIlicon: The evolution of its use in biomaterials

Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7QB, UK pSiMedica Ltd, Malvern Hills Science Park Malvern, Worcestershire WRI 4 3SZ, UK University of Notingham School of Medicine, Division of Medical Science and Graduate Entry Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Uttoxeter Road, Derby DE22 3DT, UK

J.R. Henstock, L.T. Canham, S.I. Anderson

Surface Modulation of Silicon Nitride Ceramics for Orthopaedic Applications

Transatlantic Orthopaedic Congress , October 3-5, 2014. New York: ICJR Press; 2014:1–2.

Bal BS, McEntire BJ, Bock R, Jones E, Rahaman M.

Conclusion: These results show that the surface composition and properties of Si3N4 can be engineered over a wide range Co, from a purely oxide (silica) sur… Read More

The Effect of Silicon Nitride Ceramic on Rabbit Skeletal Cells and Tissue - An In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation

Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989 Jul;(244):293-304.

Howlett CR, McCartney E, Ching W.

Abstract: This article presents a morphologic assessment of the effect of silicon nitride ceramic (Si3N4) on rabbit marrow stromal cells and their different… Read More

The SNAP trial: a double blind multi-center randomized controlled trial of a silicon nitride versus a PEEK cage in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disorders: study protocol

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014, 15:57

Kersten RF, van Gaalen SM, Arts MP, et al.

Background: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disorders, and show good clinical results. … Read More

The CASCADE Trial: Effectiveness of Ceramic Versus PEEK Cages for Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Interbody Fusion; Protocol of a Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14(1):244.

Arts MP, Wolfs JFC, Corbin TP.

Background: Anterior cervical discectomy with interbody fusion cages is considered the standard surgical procedure in patients with cervical disc herniation… Read More

Thirty-day readmissions after elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions among US Medicare beneficiaries

Marjoire C WAng, MD, MPH, Mikesh Shivatoki, BSc, Rodney A. Sparapani, PhD, Changbin Guo, PhD, Purushottam W. Laud, PhD, Anne B. Nattinger, MD, MPH

To examine readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge, reasons for readmission, and predictors of readmission among patients undergoing elective cerv… Read More

Treatment of Adjacent Level Disease Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride Implants in a Heavy Smoking, Morbidly Obese Patient

David M. Jones, M.D., Piedmont Neurosurgery

This study shows excellent radiographic and clinical outcomes in a complicated case of a heavy smoking, morbidly obese patient. Radiographs revealed excelle… Read More

Retrospective Radiographic Review of PEEK and Silicon Nitride Spinal Implants the Same Patient

Northeast Georgia Medical Center IRB Reference Number FY14-08-481

Nabil L. Muhanna , M.D.

A patient underwent two separate spinal surgeries, the first using two PEEK spinal implants and the second, three years later, using a ceramic silicon nitri… Read More

Artifact level produced by different femoral head prostheses in CT imaging: diamond coated silicon nitride as total hip replacement material

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2013;24(1):231–9.

Rodrigues SP, Paiva JM, De Francesco S, Amaral MI, Oliveira FJ, Silva RF.

Abstract: Commercial femoral head prostheses (cobalt-chromium alloy, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-PSZ) and alumina) and new silicon nitride ceram… Read More

Biocompatibility features of silicon nitride ceramics and possible application for osteosynthesis systems

6th Interdisciplinary Essen-Symposium of the Working Group On “Biomaterials and Tissue Compatibility” October 8th – 10th, 2003.

A. Neumann, C. Ragoß, H.R. Maier, K. Jahnke.

Conclusions: Si3N4 ceramics show a good biocompatibility outcome both in vitro and in vivo. Our investigations suggest that Si3N4 presumably yields even bet… Read More

Medical Imaging Characteristics of Silicon Nitride Ceramic A New Material for Spinal Arthroplasty Implants

Abstract presented at the 8th Annual Spine Arthroplasty Society Global Symposium on Motion Preservation Technology, Miami, FL, May, 2008.

Anderson M., Bernero J., Brodke D.

Conclusions: Material selection can contribute to, or impede postoperative monitoring of spinal surgery. It is desirable to visualize both an implant’s posi… Read More

Multi-level Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride Implants

David M. Jones, M.D., Piedmont Neurosurgery

This case study demonstrates adding levels to a previously fused segment, presents excellent outcomes with the Valeo OL silicon nitride interbody device. Ra… Read More

Multi-level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride & Allograft Bone in a Single Patient

David M. Jones, M.D., Piedmont Neurosurgery

This study demonstrates excellent clinical and fusion outcomes using silicon nitride and highlights the advantages of silicon nitride over allograft and aut… Read More

Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jun;134(6):923-30.

Neumann A, Unkel C, Werry C, Herborn CU, Maier HR, Ragoss C, Jahnke K.

Abstract: The favorable properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, such as high mean strength level and fracture toughness, suggest biomedical use as a… Read More

Silicon Nitride: A New Material for Spinal Implants

J Bone Jt Surg. 2010;92-Br(Supp I):133.

Taylor RM, Bernero JP, Patel AA, Brodke DS, Khandkar AC.

Conclusion: Si3N4 exhibits a superior combination of properties including strength, toughness, MRI compatibility, and wear resistance. This may allow spinal… Read More

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

McEntire BJ.

Abstract: The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… Read More

Treatment of Adjacent Level Disease Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride Implants in a Heavy Smoking, Morbidly Obese Patient

David M. Jones, M.D., Piedmont Neurosurgery

This study shows excellent radiographic and clinical outcomes in a complicated case of a heavy smoking, morbidly obese patient. Radiographs revealed excelle… Read More

An Analytical Observation of the Tribochemical Reaction of Silicon Nitride Sliding with Low Friction in Aqueous Solutions

Wear. 1997;205:153–159.

Saito T, Imada Y, Honda F.

Abstract: Friction and wear of silicon nitride sliding against the same material is investigated in aqueous solutions: distilled water, 1% H2O2 and 3% NaCl.… Read More

A new fabrication method of low stress PECVD SiNx layers for biomedical applications

Thin Solid Films. 2008;516(16):5181–5188.

Wei J, Ong PL, Tay FEH, Iliescu C.

Abstract: A new fabrication method to produce low residual stress PECVD SiNx layers at high deposition rates was developed and their biomedical applications… Read More

A Review and a Fundamental Theory of Silicon Nitride Tribochemistry

Wear. 2012;288:27–38.

Dante RC, Kajdas CK.

Abstract: The present work aims at providing a better understanding of the tribology of silicon nitride, an engineering ceramic with many applications in th… Read More

Bearing surfaces in hip replacement - Evolution and likely future

Med journal, Armed Forces India. 2014;70(4):371–6.

Kumar N, Arora GNC, Datta B.

Abstract: Total hip arthroplasty has evolved from the first total hip arthroplasty in 1938, through the revolutionization of hip arthroplasty by principles … Read More

Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

Materials (Basel). 2014;7:4367–4410.

Pezzotti G.

Abstract: Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip j… Read More

Ceramics for Medical Applications: A Picture for the Next 20 Years

Ceram Soc. 2009;29(7):1245–1255.

Chevalier J, Gremillard L.

Abstract: High-tech ceramics have always been associated to medical devices: they are used today as femoral heads and acetabular cups for total hip replacem… Read More

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… Read More

Comparison of the Friction Properties of Four Ceramic Materials for Joint Replacements

Wear. 1997;210(1):171–177.

Zhou YS, Ikeuchi K, Ohashi M.

Abstract: As the loosening of a hip joint is caused by the tissue response to polyethylene wear particles, ceramic-ceramic joints are needed for long-term o… Read More

Covalent biofunctionalization of silicon nitride surfaces

Langmuir. 2007;23(11):6233–44.

Arafat A, Giesbers M, Rosso M, Sudhölter EJ, Schroën K, White RG, Yang L, Linford MR, Zuilhof H.

Abstract: Covalently attached organic monolayers on etched silicon nitride (SixN4; x >/= 3) surfaces were prepared by reaction of SixN4-coated wafers with n… Read More

Effect of Adsorbed Water on Friction of Hot-Pressed Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbide at Slow Speed Sliding

Wear. 1988;121:107–116.

Ishigaki H, Nagata R, Iwasa M.

Abstract: The effect of adsorbed water on the characteristics of friction of both silicon nitride and silicon carbide was studied experimentally using a pin… Read More

Effects of surface preparation on the friction and wear behaviour of silicon nitride/silicon carbide sliding pairs

J Mater Sci. 1992;27(1992).

Blau P.

Abstract: Silicon carbide and silicon nitride specimens were fabricated to provide three different surface finishes. They were subjected to sphere-on-flat (… Read More

Fabrication and Evaluation of SixNy Coatings for Total Joint Replacements

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2012;23(8):1879–89.

Olofsson J, Pettersson M, Teuscher N, et al.

Abstract: Wear particles from the bearing surfaces of joint implants are one of the main limiting factors for total implant longevity. Si3N4 is a potent… Read More

Friction and Wear of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbide in Water: Hydrodynamic Lubrication at Low Sliding Speed Obtained by Tribochemical Wear

ASLE Trans. 1987;30(1):41–46.

Tomizawa H, Fischer, T E.

Abstract: This report describes experiments on friction of Si3N4 and SiC sliding against themselves and against each other in water at room temperature. The… Read More

Fundamental study for all-ceramic artificial hip joint

Wear. 1999;225-229:734–742.

Kusaka J, Takashima K, Yamane D, Ikeuchi K.

Abstract: It is thought that all-ceramics artificial hip joints should have good geometric conformity between sockets and femoral heads to avoid stress conc… Read More

Future bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty

Clin Orthop Surg. 2014;6(1):110–6.

Chang JD.

Abstract: One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is bein… Read More

Lubrication of silicon nitride and silicon carbide by water: Running in, wear and operation of sliding bearings

Tribol Lett. 2004;17(3):367–376.

Jordi L, Ilev C, Fischer TE.

Abstract: The purpose of this work was to establish the conditions for the operation and break-in of water-lubricated ceramic bearings. The experiments cons… Read More

Mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitride coatings for total joint replacements

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013;25(25):41–7.

M Pettersson, S Tkachenko, Susann Schmidt, Torun Berlind, S Jacobson, Lars Hultman, H Engqvist and C Persson.

Abstract: Total joint replacements currently have relatively high success rates at 10–15 years; however, increasing ageing and an active population places h… Read More

Silicon Nitride Bearings: An Alternative to Oxide Ceramics in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty. Kyoto, Japan; 2015:2969.

Clarke I, Pezzotti G, Lakshminarayanan A, Burgett-Moreno M.

Introduction: Looking for optimal solutions to wear risks evident in total hip arthroplasty (THA), silicon nitride ceramic bearings (Si3N4) are noted for de… Read More

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

McEntire BJ.

Abstract: The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… Read More

Single Asperity Tribochemical Wear of Silicon Nitride Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

J Appl Phys. 2002;92(9):5103–5109.

Maw W, Stevens F, Langford SC, Dickinson JT.

Abstract: Nanometer scale single asperity tribochemical wear of silicon nitride was examined by measuring the wear of atomic force microscope tips translate… Read More

Structure and Composition of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbon Nitride Coatings for Joint Replacements

Surf Coatings Technol. 2013;235:827–834.

Pettersson M, Berlind T, Schmidt S, et al.

Abstract: SiNx and SiCxNy coatings were fabricated with high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings microstructure, growth pattern, surfa… Read More

The Difference in Running-In Period and Friction Coefficient Between Self-Mated Si3N4 and SiC Under Water Lubrication

Tribol Lett. 2001;11(1):23–28.

Chen M, Kato K, Adachi K.

Abstract: Running-in periods and friction coefficients of SiC and Si3N4 sliding against themselves under water lubrication were investigated with a pin-on-d… Read More

The Effects of the Surrounding Atmosphere on the Friction and Wear of Alumina, Zirconia, Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride

Wear. 1989;134:185–200.

Sasaki S.

Abstract: The friction and wear behaviour of ceramics, Al2O3, ZrO2(PSZ), SiC and Si3N4, were studied with three kinds of pin-on-disk machines under the foll… Read More

The Rationale for Silicon Nitride Bearings in Orthopaedic Applications

Advances in Ceramics – Electric and Magnetic Ceramics, Bioceramics, Ceramics and Environment 421-432.

Bal BS, Rahaman M.

Abstract: Ceramic materials have remarkable properties that have fueled speculation about their potential applications in the biomedical field, where the ne… Read More

Thermal Conductivity of Femoral Ball Strongly Influenced UHMWPE Wear in a Hip Simulator Study

Transactions of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society. San Diego, CA: Orthopaedic Research Society; 2007:0278.

Bowsher JG, Clarke IC.

Conclusion: Our study showed that UHMWPE wear increased logarithmically with increasing thermal conductivity of the femoral ball (R2 =0.99), thereby provin… Read More

Tribochemical Aspects of Silicon Nitride Ceramic Sliding Against Stainless Steel Under the Lubrication of Seawater

Tribol Int. 2013;61:205–213.

Liu N, Wang J, Chen B, Yan F.

Abstract: Tribological behaviors of Si3N4 ceramic sliding against 316 stainless steel under seawater lubrication were investigated and compared with those u… Read More

Ultra-Low Friction Coefficient in Alumina–Silicon Nitride Pair Lubricated with Water

Wear. 2012;296(1-2):656–659.

Ferreira V, Yoshimura HN, Sinatora A.

Abstract: In a ball-on-disc wear test, an alumina ceramic body sliding against a silicon nitride ceramic body in water achieved an ultra-low friction coeffi… Read More

Water Lubrication of Silicon Nitride in Sliding

Tribol Lett. 2004;17(3):409–417.

Jahanmir S, Ozmen Y, Ives LK.

Abstract: Several studies have shown that the coefficient of friction of self-mated silicon nitride in water decreases from an initially high value to abou… Read More

Wear Prediction on Silicon Nitride Bearing Couple in Human Hip Prosthesis using Finite Element Concepts

Proc Inst Mech Eng Tribol. 2014;0(0):1–8.

Shankar S, Nithyaprakash R.

Abstract: Wear is one of the important tribological parameter that increases the revision rate of artificial hip implantation. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is on… Read More

Wear of Water Lubricated Silicon Nitride in Ball on Disc Test

Tribol - Mater Surfaces Interfaces. 2010;4(1):15–25.

Iliev C.

Abstract: The ball on disc test configuration is preferred to the flat ended pin on disc because the ball is self-aligned and measurement of wear on the bal… Read More

Do Ceramic Femoral Heads Contribute to Polyethylene Oxidation?

Presented at the 28th Annual Congress of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty Vienna Austria 2015

B. Sonny Bal, Leonardo Puppulin, Marco Boffelli, Bryan J. McEntire, Mohamed N. Rahaman, Kengo Yamamoto, and Giuseppe Pezzotti

A new fabrication method of low stress PECVD SiNx layers for biomedical applications

Thin Solid Films. 2008;516(16):5181–5188.

Wei J, Ong PL, Tay FEH, Iliescu C.

Abstract: A new fabrication method to produce low residual stress PECVD SiNx layers at high deposition rates was developed and their biomedical applications… Read More

Bearing surfaces in hip replacement - Evolution and likely future

Med journal, Armed Forces India. 2014;70(4):371–6.

Kumar N, Arora GNC, Datta B.

Abstract: Total hip arthroplasty has evolved from the first total hip arthroplasty in 1938, through the revolutionization of hip arthroplasty by principles … Read More

Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

Materials (Basel). 2014;7:4367–4410.

Pezzotti G.

Abstract: Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip j… Read More

Ceramics for Medical Applications: A Picture for the Next 20 Years

Ceram Soc. 2009;29(7):1245–1255.

Chevalier J, Gremillard L.

Abstract: High-tech ceramics have always been associated to medical devices: they are used today as femoral heads and acetabular cups for total hip replacem… Read More

Ceramic Materials in Total Joint Arthroplasty

Semin Arthro 17:94-101 2006.

B. Sonny Bal, MD, Jonathan Garino, MD, Michael Ries, MD and Mohamed N. Rahaman, PhD.

Abstract: Bearing surfaces made of ceramic materials are an alternative to metal-on-polyethylene (PE) articulations in total hip arthroplasty and total knee… Read More

Comparative investigation of the biocompatibility of various silicon nitride ceramic qualities in vitro

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2004 Oct;15(10):1135-40.

Neumann A, Reske T, Held M, Jahnke K, Ragoss C, Maier HR.

Abstract: There is a controversy about the biocompatibility of silicon nitride ceramics contained in the literature, which appears to be related to a factor… Read More

Cytocompatibility of high strength non-oxide ceramics

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Apr;93(1):67-76. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32527.

Cappi B, Neuss S, Salber J, Telle R, Knüchel R, Fischer H.

Abstract: Oxide ceramic materials like alumina (Al(2)O(3)) and zirconia (ZrO(2)) are frequently used for medical applications like implants and prostheses b… Read More

Cytotoxic evaluation of silicon nitride-based ceramics

Materials Science and Engineering C 24 (2004) 643–646.

C.C. Guedes e Silva, O.Z. Higa, J.C. Bressiani.

Abstract: Silicon nitride-based ceramics are potential candidates as materials for orthopedic implants due to their chemical stability associated with suita… Read More

Densification route and mechanical properties of Si3N4–bioglass biocomposites

Biomaterials. 2002 Feb;23(3):857-62.

Amaral M, Lopes MA, Silva RF, Santos JD.

Abstract: The processing route and the final microstructural and mechanical characteristics of a novel biomaterial composite are described. This new materia… Read More

Development and cytotoxicity evaluation of SiAlONs ceramics

Materials Science and Engineering C 27 (2007) 148–153.

C. Santos , S. Ribeiro, J.K.M.F. Daguano , S.O. Rogero, K. Strecker, C.R.M. Silva.

Abstract: SiAlONs are ceramics with high potential as biomaterials due to their chemical stability, associated with suitable mechanical properties, such as … Read More

Differential Effects of Hydrothermal Ageing on the Surface Fracture Toughness of Ceramics

Presented at the 28th Annual Congress of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty Vienna Austria 2015

Bryan J. McEntire, Yuto Enomoto, Wenliang Zhu, Marco Boffelli, Elia Marin, B. Sonny Bal, and Giuseppe Pezzotti

Evaluation of silicon nitride as a wear resistant and resorbable alternative for total hip joint replacement

Biomatter. 2012 Apr-Jun;2(2):94-102. doi: 10.4161/biom.20710.

Olofsson J, Grehk TM, Berlind T, Persson C, Jacobson S, Engqvist H.

Abstract: Many of the failures of total joint replacements are related to tribology, i.e., wear of the cup, head and liner. Accumulation of wear particles a… Read More

Fabrication and Testing of Silicon Nitride Bearings in Total Hip Arthroplasty

J Arthroplasty. 2009 Jan;24(1):110-6. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2008.01.300. Epub 2008 Apr 28.

Winner of the 2007 “HAP” PAUL Award

Bal BS, Khandkar A, Lakshminarayanan R, Clarke I, Hoffman AA, Rahaman MN.

Abstract: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) bearings were fabricated from silicon nitride (Si3N4) powder. Mechanical testing showed that Si3N4 had improv… Read More

Fabrication and Evaluation of SixNy Coatings for Total Joint Replacements

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2012;23(8):1879–89.

Olofsson J, Pettersson M, Teuscher N, et al.

Abstract: Wear particles from the bearing surfaces of joint implants are one of the main limiting factors for total implant longevity. Si3N4 is a potent… Read More

Future bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty

Clin Orthop Surg. 2014;6(1):110–6.

Chang JD.

Abstract: One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is bein… Read More

The Rationale for Silicon Nitride Bearings in Orthopaedic Applications

Advances in Ceramics – Electric and Magnetic Ceramics, Bioceramics, Ceramics and Environment 421-432.

Bal, B. Sonny, Rahaman, Mohamed.

Abstract: Ceramic materials have remarkable properties that have fueled speculation about their potential applications in the biomedical field, where the ne… Read More

Mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitride coatings for total joint replacements

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013;25(25):41–7.

M Pettersson, S Tkachenko, Susann Schmidt, Torun Berlind, S Jacobson, Lars Hultman, H Engqvist and C Persson.

Abstract: Total joint replacements currently have relatively high success rates at 10–15 years; however, increasing ageing and an active population places h… Read More

On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants. Part II: chemical stability and wear resistance in body environment

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008 Aug;19(8):2889-901. doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3437-y. Epub 2008 Apr 15.

Mazzocchi M, Gardini D, Traverso PL, Faga MG, Bellosi A.

Abstract: In Part I, the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of three silicon nitride-based ceramics were examined and their non-toxicity w… Read More

Point-Defect Populations as Induced by Cation/Anion Substitution in β-Si3N4 Lattice – A Cathodoluminescence Study

J Phys Chem C. 2015.

Zhu W, McEntire BJ, Enomoto Y, Boffelli M, Pezzotti G.

Abstract: Point-defect characterizations in bulk β-silicon nitride polycrystalline ceramics were performed by means of cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy… Read More

Results of 15-Year Clinical Study of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Intervertebral Spacers

Proceedings of the 7th World Biomaterials Congress, May 17-21, 2004, Sydney, Australia.

Sorrell, CC, Hardcastle, PH, Druitt, RK, Howlett, CR, and McCartney, ER.

Findings: Thirty patients with long-term spinal degeneration problems underwent anterior interbody fusion of the lower spine using reaction bonded silicon n… Read More

Si3N4-bioglass composites stimulate the proliferation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells and support the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow cells

Biomaterials. 2002 Dec;23(24):4897-906.

Amaral M, Costa MA, Lopes MA, Silva RF, Santos JD, Fernandes MH.

Abstract: The in vitro osteocompatibility of a novel Si3N4-bioglass composite (70-30% weight proportion) with improved mechanical properties (fracture t… Read More

Silicon Nitride and Related Materials

Journal of the American Ceramic Society 2000;83(2):245–265.

Riley FL.

Abstract: Silicon nitride has been researched intensively, largely in response to the challenge to develop internal combustion engines with hot-zone compone… Read More

Silicon Nitride Bearings: An Alternative to Oxide Ceramics in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty. Kyoto, Japan; 2015:2969.

Clarke I, Pezzotti G, Lakshminarayanan A, Burgett-Moreno M.

Introduction: Looking for optimal solutions to wear risks evident in total hip arthroplasty (THA), silicon nitride ceramic bearings (Si3N4) are noted for de… Read More

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

McEntire BJ.

Abstract: The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… Read More

Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012 Dec;16:9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.06.020. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Shi Z, Wang Y, Du C, Huang N, Wang L, Ning C.

Abstract: Behaviors of silicon nitride films and their relation to blood compatibility and biomechanical have been interesting subjects to researchers. A sy… Read More

Silicon nitride: the engineering material of the future

J Mater Sci. 2011;47(2):535–552.

Krstic Z, Krstic VD.

Abstract: The purpose of this review is to present the recent developments in silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics and to examine the achievements regarding our… Read More

Surface Modulation of Silicon Nitride Ceramics for Orthopaedic Applications

Transatlantic Orthopaedic Congress , October 3-5, 2014. New York: ICJR Press; 2014:1–2.

Bal BS, McEntire BJ, Bock R, Jones E, Rahaman M.

Conclusion: These results show that the surface composition and properties of Si3N4 can be engineered over a wide range Co, from a purely oxide (silica) sur… Read More

Structure and Composition of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbon Nitride Coatings for Joint Replacements

Surf Coatings Technol. 2013;235:827–834.

Pettersson M, Berlind T, Schmidt S, et al.

Abstract: SiNx and SiCxNy coatings were fabricated with high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings microstructure, growth pattern, surfa… Read More

Bearing surfaces in hip replacement - Evolution and likely future

Med journal, Armed Forces India. 2014;70(4):371–6.

Kumar N, Arora GNC, Datta B.

Abstract: Total hip arthroplasty has evolved from the first total hip arthroplasty in 1938, through the revolutionization of hip arthroplasty by principles … Read More

Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

Materials (Basel). 2014;7:4367–4410.

Pezzotti G.

Abstract: Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip j… Read More

Ceramics for Medical Applications: A Picture for the Next 20 Years

Ceram Soc. 2009;29(7):1245–1255.

Chevalier J, Gremillard L.

Abstract: High-tech ceramics have always been associated to medical devices: they are used today as femoral heads and acetabular cups for total hip replacem… Read More

Ceramic Materials in Total Joint Arthroplasty

Semin Arthro 17:94-101 2006.

B. Sonny Bal, MD, Jonathan Garino, MD, Michael Ries, MD and Mohamed N. Rahaman, PhD.

Abstract: Bearing surfaces made of ceramic materials are an alternative to metal-on-polyethylene (PE) articulations in total hip arthroplasty and total knee… Read More

Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared to PEEK or titanium

Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:4829-40. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S35190. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

Gorth DJ, Puckett S, Ercan B, Webster TJ, Rahaman M, Bal BS.

Abstract: A significant need exists for orthopedic implants that can intrinsically resist bacterial colonization. In this study, three biomaterials that are… Read More

Evaluation of silicon nitride as a wear resistant and resorbable alternative for total hip joint replacement

Biomatter. 2012 Apr-Jun;2(2):94-102. doi: 10.4161/biom.20710.

Olofsson J, Grehk TM, Berlind T, Persson C, Jacobson S, Engqvist H.

Abstract: Many of the failures of total joint replacements are related to tribology, i.e., wear of the cup, head and liner. Accumulation of wear particles a… Read More

Fabrication and Evaluation of SixNy Coatings for Total Joint Replacements

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2012;23(8):1879–89.

Olofsson J, Pettersson M, Teuscher N, et al.

Abstract: Wear particles from the bearing surfaces of joint implants are one of the main limiting factors for total implant longevity. Si3N4 is a potent… Read More

Future bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty

Clin Orthop Surg. 2014;6(1):110–6.

Chang JD.

Abstract: One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is bein… Read More

On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants. Part II: chemical stability and wear resistance in body environment

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008 Aug;19(8):2889-901. doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3437-y. Epub 2008 Apr 15.

Mazzocchi M, Gardini D, Traverso PL, Faga MG, Bellosi A.

Abstract: In Part I, the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of three silicon nitride-based ceramics were examined and their non-toxicity w… Read More

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

McEntire BJ.

Abstract: The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… Read More

Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012 Dec;16:9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.06.020. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Shi Z, Wang Y, Du C, Huang N, Wang L, Ning C.

Abstract: Behaviors of silicon nitride films and their relation to blood compatibility and biomechanical have been interesting subjects to researchers. A sy… Read More

Study on the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses

Materials Science and Engineering C5 (1997) 125-129.

Y.S. Zhou, M. Ohashi, N. Tomita, K. Ikeuchi, K. Takashima.

Abstract: In order to study the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses, the running-in property, the start-up and s… Read More

Surface Modulation of Silicon Nitride Ceramics for Orthopaedic Applications

Transatlantic Orthopaedic Congress , October 3-5, 2014. New York: ICJR Press; 2014:1–2.

Bal BS, McEntire BJ, Bock R, Jones E, Rahaman M.

Conclusion: These results show that the surface composition and properties of Si3N4 can be engineered over a wide range Co, from a purely oxide (silica) sur… Read More

Surface modulation of silicon nitride ceramics for orthopaedic applications

Ryan M. Bock, Bryan J. McEntire, B. Sonny Bal, Mohamed N. Rahman, Marco Boffelli, Giuseppe Pezzotti

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) has a distinctive combination of material properties such as high strength and fracture toughness, inherent phase stability, scratch… Read More

Wettability and surface charge of Si3N4–bioglass composites in contact with simulated physiological liquids

Biomaterials. 2002 Oct;23(20):4123-9.

Amaral M, Lopes MA, Santos JD, Silva RF.

Abstract: Wettability and surface charge studies were performed on a novel Si3N4-30wt% bioglass biocomposite. Contact angle and surface tension variation wi… Read More

An Overview of Silicon Nitride as a Novel Biomaterial

Poster presented at the Innovations in Biomedical Materials 2012 Meeting, Raleigh, NC, September 10 – 13, 2012.

Bryan J. McEntire, Alan Lakshminarayanan, PhD, B. Sonny Bal, M.D., MBA, JD and Thomas J. Webster, PhD.

Abstract: For over thirty years, silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been used extensively in a wide array of demanding industrial applications such as precision be… Read More

A surface modification strategy on silicon nitride for developing biosensors

Anal Biochem. 2005;343(2):322–8.

Diao J, Ren D, Engstrom JR, Lee KH.

Abstract: A surface modification strategy for the use of giant magnetoresistive materials in the detection of protein-protein interactions is developed. Thi… Read More

Bearing surfaces in hip replacement - Evolution and likely future

Med journal, Armed Forces India. 2014;70(4):371–6.

Kumar N, Arora GNC, Datta B.

Abstract: Total hip arthroplasty has evolved from the first total hip arthroplasty in 1938, through the revolutionization of hip arthroplasty by principles … Read More

Biocompatibility features of silicon nitride ceramics and possible application for osteosynthesis systems

6th Interdisciplinary Essen-Symposium of the Working Group On “Biomaterials and Tissue Compatibility” October 8th – 10th, 2003.

A. Neumann, C. Ragoß, H.R. Maier, K. Jahnke.

Conclusions: Si3N4 ceramics show a good biocompatibility outcome both in vitro and in vivo. Our investigations suggest that Si3N4 presumably yields even bet… Read More

Biocompatibility of Silicon Nitride Ceramic In Vitro. A Comparative Fluorescence-microscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

Laryngorhinootologie. 2004 Dec;83(12):845-51.

Neumann A, Jahnke K, Maier HR, Ragoss C.

Abstract: With regard to its favorable physical properties, silicon nitride ceramic is considered as biomaterial for human medical application. Minor contro… Read More

Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

Materials (Basel). 2014;7:4367–4410.

Pezzotti G.

Abstract: Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip j… Read More

Ceramics for Medical Applications: A Picture for the Next 20 Years

Ceram Soc. 2009;29(7):1245–1255.

Chevalier J, Gremillard L.

Abstract: High-tech ceramics have always been associated to medical devices: they are used today as femoral heads and acetabular cups for total hip replacem… Read More

Comparative investigation of the biocompatibility of various silicon nitride ceramic qualities in vitro

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2004 Oct;15(10):1135-40.

Neumann A, Reske T, Held M, Jahnke K, Ragoss C, Maier HR.

Abstract: There is a controversy about the biocompatibility of silicon nitride ceramics contained in the literature, which appears to be related to a factor… Read More

Covalent biofunctionalization of silicon nitride surfaces

Langmuir. 2007;23(11):6233–44.

Arafat A, Giesbers M, Rosso M, Sudhölter EJ, Schroën K, White RG, Yang L, Linford MR, Zuilhof H.

Abstract: Covalently attached organic monolayers on etched silicon nitride (SixN4; x >/= 3) surfaces were prepared by reaction of SixN4-coated wafers with n… Read More

Cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramic particles of different sizes and shapes

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2004 Feb 1;68(2):244-56.

Yamamoto A, Honma R, Sumita M, Hanawa T.

Abstract: When artificial hip or knee joints are implanted in the human body, they release metallic, ceramic, and polymeric debris into the surrounding tiss… Read More

Cytotoxic evaluation of silicon nitride-based ceramics

Materials Science and Engineering C 24 (2004) 643–646.

C.C. Guedes e Silva, O.Z. Higa, J.C. Bressiani.

Abstract: Silicon nitride-based ceramics are potential candidates as materials for orthopedic implants due to their chemical stability associated with suita… Read More

Cytocompatibility of high strength non-oxide ceramics

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Apr;93(1):67-76. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32527.

Cappi B, Neuss S, Salber J, Telle R, Knüchel R, Fischer H.

Abstract: Oxide ceramic materials like alumina (Al(2)O(3)) and zirconia (ZrO(2)) are frequently used for medical applications like implants and prostheses b… Read More

Debunking the Myth that Ceramics are Bioinert: Comparison of Alumina versus Silicon Nitride

Presented at the 28th Annual Congress of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty Vienna Austria, 2015

B. Sonny Bal, Bryan J. McEntire, Mohamed N. Rahaman, and Giuseppe Pexxotti

Development and cytotoxicity evaluation of SiAlONs ceramics

Materials Science and Engineering C 27 (2007) 148–153.

C. Santos , S. Ribeiro, J.K.M.F. Daguano , S.O. Rogero, K. Strecker, C.R.M. Silva.

Abstract: SiAlONs are ceramics with high potential as biomaterials due to their chemical stability, associated with suitable mechanical properties, such as … Read More

Enhanced proliferation and osteocalcin production by human osteoblast-like MG63 cells on silicon nitride ceramic discs

Acta Biomater. 2012 Dec;8(12):4447-54. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.07.038. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Webster TJ, Patel AA, Rahaman MN, Sonny Bal B.

Abstract: The biocompatibility of silicon nitride (Si3N4) was assessed in an in vitro model using the human osteoblast-like MG-63 cell line. Cells were prop… Read More

Evaluation of Silicon Nitride as a Substrate for Culture of PC12 Cells: An Interfacial Model for Functional Studies in Neurons

PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e90189.

Medina Benavente JJ, Mogami H, Sakurai T, Sawada K.

Abstract: Silicon nitride is a biocompatible material that is currently used as an interfacial surface between cells and large-scale integration devices inc… Read More

Evaluation of silicon nitride as a wear resistant and resorbable alternative for total hip joint replacement

Biomatter. 2012 Apr-Jun;2(2):94-102. doi: 10.4161/biom.20710.

Olofsson J, Grehk TM, Berlind T, Persson C, Jacobson S, Engqvist H.

Abstract: Many of the failures of total joint replacements are related to tribology, i.e., wear of the cup, head and liner. Accumulation of wear particles a… Read More

Fabrication and Evaluation of SixNy Coatings for Total Joint Replacements

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2012;23(8):1879–89.

Olofsson J, Pettersson M, Teuscher N, et al.

Abstract: Wear particles from the bearing surfaces of joint implants are one of the main limiting factors for total implant longevity. Si3N4 is a potent… Read More

Future bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty

Clin Orthop Surg. 2014;6(1):110–6.

Chang JD.

Abstract: One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is bein… Read More

Histological and microradiographic appearances of Silicon Nitride and Aluminum Oxide in a rabbit femur implantation model

Presented in part as a poster at the AAO-HNSF Annual Meeting, Sept. 21-24, 2003, Orlando, Florida.

A. Neumann, M. Kramps, Chr. Ragoß, H.R. Maier, K. Jahnke.

Conclusions: Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic known for its high performance characterized by fracture toughness, high wear resistance and low coefficie… Read More

Hydroxyapatite Coating on Silicon Nitride Surfaces Using the Biomimetic Method

Materials Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, 47-50, 2008.

Cecilia Chaves Guedes e Silva, Eliana Cristina da Silva Rigo, Juliana Marchi, Ana Helena de Almeida Bressiani, José Carlos Bressiani.

Abstract: Silicon nitride based ceramics are promising candidates for biomedical applications due to their chemical and dimensional stability associated to … Read More

In Vivo Biostability of CVD Silicon Oxide and Silicon Nitride Films

Mater Res Soc Proc. 2005;872:J14.3.1.

  1. Maloney JM, Lipka SA, Baldwin SP.

Abstract: Low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon oxide and silicon nitride films were … Read More

Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jun;134(6):923-30.

Neumann A, Unkel C, Werry C, Herborn CU, Maier HR, Ragoss C, Jahnke K.

Abstract: The favorable properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, such as high mean strength level and fracture toughness, suggest biomedical use as a… Read More

Mechanical Properties and Osseointegration of a Load Bearing Bioactive Bone Graft

49th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society Paper #0183

R. Lakshminarayanan, A. C. Khandkar, W, Bireley and M.S. Rao

Successful repair of bone defects remains a major concern to reconstructive surgeons, especially in the elderly patient population in whom the osteogenic … Read More

On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants - Part I: processing, microstructure, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008 Aug;19(8):2881-7. doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3417-2. Epub 2008 Mar 18.

Mazzocchi M, Bellosi A.

Abstract: Notwithstanding the good combination of mechanical and tribological properties, the suitability of silicon nitride for application as prosthesis i… Read More

Protein-repellent silicon nitride surfaces: UV-induced formation of oligoethylene oxide monolayers

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2011;3(3):697–704.

Rosso M, Nguyen AT, de Jong E, Baggerman J, Paulusse JM, Giesbers M, Fokkink RG, Norde W, Schroën K, van Rijn CJ, Zuilhof H.

Abstract: The grafting of polymers and oligomers of ethylene oxide onto surfaces is widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of biological material on … Read More

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

McEntire BJ.

Abstract: The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… Read More

Synthesis, Characterizations and in Vitro Assessment of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Novel Silicon Nitride-Based Porous Ceramics

Mater Sci Appl. 2013;4(7):407–418.

Hnatko M, Lenčéš Z, Čopan P, Birošová L, Matejov P, Jantová S.

Abstract: Porous Si3N4-SiO2-based ceramics with different porosity were prepared via free sintering of Si3N4 on air with an addition of semolina (5, 10 and … Read More

Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012 Dec;16:9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.06.020. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Shi Z, Wang Y, Du C, Huang N, Wang L, Ning C.

Abstract: Behaviors of silicon nitride films and their relation to blood compatibility and biomechanical have been interesting subjects to researchers. A sy… Read More

Study on the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses

Materials Science and Engineering C5 (1997) 125-129.

Y.S. Zhou, M. Ohashi, N. Tomita, K. Ikeuchi, K. Takashima.

~ 49 ~ Abstract: In order to study the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses, the running-in property, the start-… Read More

Size Matters to Stem Cells

Integr. Biol., 2009, 1, 525, DOI: 10.1039/b908196h

Sebastian Bauer, Jung Park, Josef Faltenbacher, Steffen Berger, Klaus von der Mark, and Patrik Schmuki

Tissue response around silicon nitride implants in rabbits

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008 Feb;84(2):337-43.

Guedes e Silva CC, König B Jr, Carbonari MJ, Yoshimoto M, Allegrini S Jr, Bressiani JC.

Abstract: The chemical and dimensional stability associated with suitable fracture toughness and propitious tribological characteristics make silicon nitrid… Read More

Effect of physiological loads on cortical and traditional pedicle screw fixation

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Oct 15;39(22):E1297-302. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000553.

Baluch DA, Patel AA, Lullo B, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Nguyen NL, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG.

Abstract: STUDY DESIGN: Human cadaveric biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: To determine the fixation strength of laterally directed, cortical pedicle screws … Read More

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

McEntire BJ.

Abstract: The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… Read More

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